April 17th. In April flowers were dedicated to Hu Yaobang, the disgraced former Party Secretary, who were sympathetic to pro-democracy advocates. His death on April 15th marked the beginning of the student movement.

April 18th. Students hold aloft a banner calling for “Freedom & Democracy Enlightment” on the martyrs monument in Tiananmen Square festooned with a great portrait of Hu Yaobang, surrounded with wreaths dedicated to him by people from many universities.

April 18th. During Hu Yaobang’s memorial, a couplet on the wall of the People’s University lampooned the communist bureaucracy: “Seeking not accomplishment, but faults free, one shall achieve immortality”; “Be an obedient bureaucrat rather than a bureaucrat of integrity and has one’s young life cut short”.

April 19th. Students held a sit-in in front of a living wall of police guarding communist party headquarters. During the night, the police dispelled with force the students, which caused more protests later.

April 20th. The first march organized by the Beijing University Student Union Preparation Committee, protesting the violent acts of the army and police the night before at the gate of Xinhua Men. The Beijing University Student Union Preparation Committee was formed only a day before.

April 21st. Students from Beijing University of Engineering carried a banner, top reading “Democracy Bathed in Blood” as they marched into Tiananmen Square early Saturday morning to join tens of thousands of other students. The students planned to spend the night in the square and waited for the memorial service of Hu Yaobang later in the day.

April 22nd. Students from various universities of Beijing participated in Hu Yaobang’s memorial service held on the Tiananmen Square. Afterwards, they issued a petition of seven points. This picture shows students from the University of Public Administration and Law participating in Hu Yaobang’s memorial service. The backdrop shows article 35 of the Chinese Constitution and Hu’s picture.

After the memorial service for Hu Yaobang, Guo Haifeng and two others were kneeling in front of the eastern steps of the Great Hall of the People, presenting their petition. They were not received by Premier Li Peng, who was then inside the building. Recently, in his memoir, Li Peng denied he was aware of the petition.

April 23rd. Students put up a poster at Peking University announcing support for a class boycott being organized by student leaders at several universities.

April 25th. One of the additions to the many posters up at Peking University was this slogan from the American Revolution written on a bedsheet.

April 26th. The People’s Daily, the mouth piece of the communist party, published an editorial, entitled: “Must resolutely oppose any unrest”. This editorial is accusing the student movement as a planned conspiracy against the party as well as socialism. The April 26 editorial triggered a strong reaction within the student movement

The April 27th march was a protest to the April 26th editorial. More than a million students and citizens took part in this march. The impact of this march was so high that it was beyond anyone’s estimation. The Chinese authority was forced to reconsider and to avoid violent suppression. Banners among marchers include: “Long live democracy, long live the people”; “Long live to the integrity of the Chinese Communist Party”

April 28th. A student at Peking University pointed to a map of Thursday's march route on a poster up on campus Friday as he recounted a tale of how marchers push through police lines on their way to Tiananmen Square.

April 28th. Students took notes of the posters on college campuses in Beijing. Some of the posters were written by students who came from out of town.

April 29th. Due to the pressure from the April 27th march, the Chinese authority conducted an insincere dialogue with students. The spokes person for the government, Yuan Mu, seated at the head table, was actually lecturing the students. The student representatives were pre-selected from government recognized student unions. The Beijing Independent Student Union which was just formed the day before, refused to accept this as a true dialogue.

May 4th. In Shanghai, all universities jointly launched the grand demonstration in commemorating the May 4th anniversary, with tens of thousands participating. Up to ten thousand students started sit-in, following the demonstration, in front of the Shanghai municipal government, demanding dialogue on “Students’ Manifesto”, with Jiang Zemin, the Party Secretary General of Shanghai. A female student was shown in the photo announcing the “Manifesto” in front of the municipal government.

May 4th, about seven thousand students of Beijing Normal University marched onto Tian’anmen Square.

May 4th. Chinese police tried in vain to contain a huge crowd of student marchers.

May 4th. Chinese students shouted with joy after breaking through a police blockade.

May 4th. Students carried a banner reading, “Hello, Mr. Democracy”.

May 4th. A senior professor, who participated in the May 4th Movement seventy years ago, was speaking to the crowd in support of the students’ petition in front of the Shanghai municipal government.

May 10th. Bicycle demonstration on May 10th was probably the first of the kind in the world, which fit well into China’s state of reality.

May 10th. The marvelous scene when the bicycle demonstration reached the Tian’anmen Square. One student got his mouth and forehead bound with bandages, which read “Return my human rights – I want to speak out”, a sign of supporting the petitions by journalists and reporters in Beijing.

May 13th. Students’ hunger strike started in the afternoon of May 13th, 1989. That same day, students braved a chilly night in the Tiananmen Square. At the time, most students believed the government will yield to their demands soon. This belief led them to not prepare with beddings or overcoats.

May 14th. Last Letter: With our life, we petition the authority in charge. “Papa, Mama, if I should die an unfortunate death this time, please never think that this is a moment’s rashness of your son, nor it was due to the urgings of older men…”

5pm, May 14th, flags in the Tiananmen Square declared: “Democratic dialogue” At this time the actual dialogue between the government and students were not broadcasted on TV as the government promised. One professor pleaded: “save my students”. Behind him a banner said: “Teachers and students will live or die together”.

May 15th. Students on the Tian’anmen Square in the morning next day after the hunger strike began. Participants of the hunger strike rose swiftly from 800 to 3,000.

May 15th. A Beijing university student sit bound in a cardboard box as the strike for democracy continues for the third day in Beijing's Tiananmen Square. The box indicates he cannot use his hands so he cannot eat.

May 15th. “Mom, I am hungry. But I can’t eat” as read on a tent on the Tian’anmens Square.

May 15th. United, heart to heart, mother and son in hunger strike together.

May 15th. Pupils went to streets to supporting the just actions of big brothers and sisters, and they carried signs that read “down with corruption”.

「民主----我們的共同理想」 。學生拉起附上俄文的橫幅遊行,歡迎提倡公開化和新思維的蘇聯領袖戈爾巴喬夫來訪。
May 15th. “Democracy…Our common ideal”. Students marching with a banner in Russian, welcoming the visiting Soviet leader Gorbachev, who advocated Glasnost and new thinking.

On May 16th, a summit was held between the Secretary Generals of China and Soviet Union – Zhao Ziyang and Gorbatchev – in Beijing. This was the last time Zhao Ziyang showed up on national TVs, who was later ousted for his sympathy towards students and opposition of the military crackdown.

May 16th. Beijing students relax in Tiananmen Square as their hunger strike begins a fourth day.

May 16th. Peng Rong, biology postgraduate student of Peking University, was a key member of the Beida’s preparatory committee. He initiated a campaign of “shave heads bold” in protest right before June 4th, and was put in jail after the massacre. He was shown in this photo to conduct hunger strike on the Square while holding a macrophone and directing his scout teams. His clothes were painted with a slogan: “We Shall Overcome”.

May 17th. Medics rushed a student from Tiananmen Square after he collapsed on the third day of their hunger strike.

May 17th. Monks re-entered “the secular domain”, supporting students in hunger strike

May 17th. Common ground could be found between the most traditional and most modern Chinese on the Tian’anmen square. A monk was shown in the photo making a speech in support of students on the square.

橫幅:「法官呼籲救救學生」 。絕食抗爭牽動廣大民眾的心,法官也走上街頭,只為「救救學生」 。
May 18th. Student’s hunger strike touched the hearts of the wider populace. Even judges were on the street to save the students.

May 18th. Military police from University of Police Officers went to streets in support of the student’ movement.

May 18th. A na?ve-faced child riding his dad’s shoulder. He held a banner that read “support students’ movement”.

May 18th. A Beijing policeman encouraged students demonstrating for democratic reforms.

May 19th. Camping outdoors on the Square, students either lied down on the ground, or stayed inside buses or tents. A Republic-on-the-Square was formed in the center of China’s capital. Students were shown in the photo sleeping on the roof of buses bathing the morning sunshine.

At 4 am on May 19th, Zhao Ziyang and Wen Jiabao, the present China’s premier, suddenly appeared on the Square without advanced announcement and visited the students who were still hunger striking inside the bus. Zhao Ziyang had just been reprimanded by the Party leadership and was out of power at that moment.

May 19th. Usually staying inside the buses were students who were conducting hunger strikes, while others had to sleep outside.

May 19th. Beijing youths chanting as they drove to Tiananmen Square Friday to lend their enthusiastic support to striking students.

May 19th. An effigy of the Statue of Liberty stands with the hunger strikers in front of the Shanghai city government offices.

May 19th, 10 pm, Li Peng declared martial law in Beijing from next day on. Yang Shangkun announced the mobilization of the troops. All together 13 Army Groups, about 200,000 troops were used to attack Beijing from all directions. Zhao Ziyang refused to appear in this meeting and disappeared from public view.

May 20th. Students pledged to defend the Republic-on-the-Square with their blood upon being informed of the government’s decision to implementing the martial law.

May 20th. A student from Beijing College of International Relations painted his clothes with pledges: “Death Squad – Buddha says: if I don’t go to hell, who will ?!”

May 20th to May 22nd. Citizens and students of Beijing blocking the entry of the army into the city

May 20th. A mother introduced her son to a martial law soldier on an army truck.

May 21st. A convoy of some 200 vehicles from the army sit idle after demonstrators blocked the road to Beijing. Feng Tai is 15 miles southwest of Beijing.

May 21st. A bus was blocking a suburban highway leading to Beijing, preventing military convoys from passing.

May 21st. A military convoy, marching towards Beijing and carrying troops for implementing the martial law, was stopped in the suburb by local residents.

May 21st. Student demonstrators offering food to PLA troops in Feng Tai near Beijing. Their convoy was stopped by roadblocks as they were enroute to the capital.

May 21st. Li Nan, left of Duyi ju restaurant, and Yuan Chi, a monk with the China Buddhist Association, received cheers from students. They had donated over $53,000 worth of food to the protesters in the square.

May 21st. Students wave fists and flags as five military helicopters buzz Tiananmen Square at dawn Sunday.

May 22nd. About 150 of 300 Chinese students at Moscow State University demonstrated near the Chinese Embassy to support student protesters in Beijing. The sign in the middle reads “Against Bureaucracy and Corruption”. The sign at right reads “For Reform”.

May 22nd. Students holding Tiananmen Square pass the time with a lively dance Monday morning. They have occupied the square for nine days.

May 23rd. Chinese students from the University of Miami, Florida, Atlantic University, and Florida International University take part in a peaceful march in Miami. The students were marching to show support for the Chinese Student Patriotic Movement in Beijing.

May 23rd. The troops enroute to the square, were turned back by the crowds. Soldiers wave from the back of the truck as it turn back from the city.

May 23rd. “God speaks: Remove Li Peng”. After the implementation of the martial law, people overwhelmingly wanted the National People’s Congress to convene an emergency session, dismissing the martial law and removing Premier Li Peng.

May 23rd. Left: The famous portrait of Chairman Mao looking over the Tiananmen Square was splattered with paint by three men. Workers covered immediately the huge portrait.

May 23rd. The Square under a thunderstorm, while students still kept their spirit high and maintained sense of black humor.

May 24th. Voice of the Student, the broadcast station at the base of “the Monument of the Martyrs”.

May 24th. A Hong Kong Chinese student holds an identification banner before the Eiffel Tower. He and other students demonstrated along with French intellectuals for the resignation of People's Republic of China Premier Li Peng and more democracy in the mainland China state.

May 25th. A mass gathering in the center of Chengdu, the capital city of the southwestern Sichuan province, in support of students in Beijing. The banner reads: “fight from freedom”.

May 25th. Students from Shenyang College of Technology in the northeastern industrial bases took truck to Beijing joining the students in demonstration.

May 25th. Trucks of demonstrators fill Tiananmen Square in a rally for democracy.

May 25th. Students mingle between city buses that have been their home in the square for the past ten days.

May 26th. Disabled veterans made a slogan out of crutches: “ Supporting students, Against corruption, Disabled Veterans” in Tiananmen Square.

May 26th. Beijing university students entertain their comrades holding Tiananmen Square with a concert.

May 26th. Student leader Zhang Jian, from Beijing College of Athletic Education, fell in sleep out of fatigue at a rock-n-roll concert performed by Cui Jian. Zhang was shot with three bullets while he was at the northwest corner of the Tian’anmen Square at the dawn of June 4th. He was rescued and survived. He hid his identity for twelve years and went a long way finally abroad to France. There still is one bullet left in his body.

May 27th. The Freedom Forum. Students listened as a strike spokesman details plans for a Sunday rally in Tiananmen Square.

On May 28th, Chinese marched globally. Students in Beijing commemorated the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution, demanding the government to dismiss the implementation of the martial law and removing Premier Li Peng from his position.

May 28th. Hong Kong students joined the grand march in Beijing.

May 28th. The Statue of Liberty, traveling from Paris to New York and, through a long way finally to Beijing in 1989. Students from the Central College of Fine Arts, as shown in the photo, were creating the Goddess of Democracy, modeled on the Statue of Liberty.

May 30th. In the morning of May 30th, the Goddess of Democracy to be unveiled, resembling the rising sun and symbolizing the uplifting of beamy democracy in China’s horizon.

May 30th. Hang Dongfang, Chair of the Beijing Independent Trade Union, giving a speech in front of the Ministry of Security, Beijing. He demanded the release of arrested leaders of workers. The same night, three leaders were released.

May 31st. An old lady came to look on the Goddess of Democracy with the help of students.

June 1st. Face to face: the Goddess of Democracy on the Tian’anmen Square and the portrait of Mao Zetung hung on Tian’anmen Castle Building, symbolizing the wrestling of democracy and totalitarism.

June 1st. The Commanding Center of the Square invited children to spend their June 1st International Children’s Day, under the Goddess of Democracy on the Square.

June 2nd. A Beijing university student gathering bamboo as they erected tents to protect them from the heat in Tiananmen Square.

June 2nd. Picture above: At the beginning of June, 1989, four intellectuals, Zhou Dou, Liu Xiaobo, Hou Dejian and Gao Xin, were hunger striking in front of the Hero’s Memorial in the Tiananmen Square. They avowed solidarity with the students. Picture below: People and students congregated around the four intellectual hunger strikers in front of the Hero’s Memorial.

June 3rd. A student pro-democracy protester flashes victory signs to the crowd as troops withdraw on the west side of the Great Hall of the People near Tiananmen Square.

June 3rd. A worker is helped through the crowd at Tiananmen Square after being bloodied in a clash with police outside the Great Hall of the People. The army helmet he is carrying fell off a soldier during the melee. (June 3, The Bettmann Archive)


June 4th. In the Tiananmen Square, students were carrying their bullet wounded classmates to hospitals for emergency resuscitation.

4 am, June 4th, 1989, Beijing, soldiers rushed out of the Great Hall of the People, with guns pointed towards students under the Hero’s Memorial. They fired as they pushed forward. In this picture the flash out of the muzzle of the weapon of one soldier is clearly visible. Professor Ding Zhelin has recently collected two more names of students who perished that night in the Tiananmen Square.

5 am, June 4th, 1989, Beijing, special unit soldiers in camouflage outfits rushed the Hero’s Memorial, driving off students.

6:20 am, June 4th, 1989, Fang Zheng and other classmates were evacuating from the Tiananmen Square. He turned back to save a female student. He ended up with both of his legs crushed by a tank. After June 4th, he recovered and won two gold medals in a national disabled persons’ athletic competition. But his credentials to compete in international events were taken away from him, due to his involvement in the June 4th protest.

Where there is oppression, there will be revolt. The morning of June 4th, 1989, soldiers were still shooting on the Chang An Street. Citizens of Beijing fought back heroically. The picture shows a few bullet wounded citizens lying in the Chang An Street and others were helping the wounded.

Beijing streets were bloodstained on June 4th.

June 4th. A rickshaw driver fierce y paddled the wounded people with the help of bystanders to a nearby hospital. Soldiers again fired hundreds of rounds towards angry crowds gathered outside Tiananmen Square.

Many June 4th victim died of being shot by Dumdum bullets, which were prohibited internationally. Recently military surgeon Dr. Jiang Yanyong confirmed that the troops used the Dumdum bullets in the crack-down.

June 4th. Demonstrators line up outside the Chinese Embassy in Washington. Demonstrators were . protesting the killing of students in China by government troops.

June 5th. The great rally in Macau to condemn the Beijing Government for the massacre of unarmed Chinese protesters.

June 5th. Wang Weilin, who stood alone before the marching tanks, was listed one of the giants of the 20th century. As a matter of fact, nobody really knows who he was, what his name was and where he is now.

June 5th. A couple on a bicycle take cover underneath a bridge on which China's People's Liberation Army tanks hold positions.

June 6th. Soldiers guarding Tiananmen Square hunker down behind barracades Tuesday morning while heavy artillery looms in the background under the portrait of Chairman Mao.

June 6th. Sad and shocking news from Beijing, people of the city of Chengdu, Shichuan Province were mourning the death of June 4th in Beijing. They clashed with the police. The city of Chengdu is the other city where the authority used force to suppressed the crowd. There were also many citizens and students deaths during the clash in Chengdu.

June 7th. Crowds of curious Being residents gather to loo at the military hardware in Tiananmen Square Wednesday.

June 7th. Soldiers stationed around the Hero’s Memorial in the Tiananmen Square. Tank tracks on the Steps of the Hero’s Memorial are still visible.

June 7th. Two women stand on the upper balcony of a foreign diplomatic apartment building Thursday that was riddled by machine gun fire Wednesday by Chinese troops who claimed they were shot at by a sniper. Bullet holes can be seen on the lower balcony.

June 8th. PLA troops guard an intersection in central Beijing. The Martial Law in Beijing was not removed until April 1990.

On June 9th, Deng Xiaoping, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, met with army and higher commanders from the martial law enforcement troops, showing that the situation was under his control.

June 15th. Beijing city workers scrub the martyr's monument in Tiananmen Square. The monument was the rallying point for students during their demonstration.

A picture of those killed or maimed in June 4th and testimonials from their relatives (1)

A picture of those killed or maimed in June 4th and testimonials from their relatives (2)